Sustainability of Fadama Farming System as an Adaptive Response to Climate Change and Variability in Southern Guinea Zone of Nigeria


Over the centuries, the use of Fadama particularly for dry season farming has been of significance in many parts of Nigeria. The aim of this study is to assess the present state of Fadama land in the study area as a strategy to making it sustainable so that it can become an effective climate change adaptation tool in small holding agriculture. The specific objectives of the study are to characterize the Fadama sites in the study area in terms of its dominant adjoining land uses, evaluate the ecological changes and its implications relating to the adaptive use of Fadama for farming, to and determine the relationship between changes (soil moisture change) Fadama land and rainfall amount in dry season as well as to propose a plan for the protection and preservation of Fadama. The study adopted geospatial techniques to characterize the Fadama sites in terms of its dominant adjoining land uses and the ecological changes over a period of last 41years between 1973 and 2014.The relationship between observed changes in Fadama sites with climatic rainfall was assessed and plan for the protection and preservation Fadama that was proposed. Primary data for the study were collected through the administration of a structured questionnaire and Focus Group Discussions (FGD) involving Fadama farmers and scientists at National Cereal Research Institutes (NCRI) Badeggi, Niger state. The data sets obtained were analysed with simple statistical procedures. Remote Sensing data were also employed in this study and were obtained from United States Geological Survey (USGS) and Meteorological data were downscaled from Era interim site using the multidimensional data format. Standard spatial operations (Image classification, reclassification, overlay, and zonal analysis) were carried out using geospatial tools (IDRISI, ArcGIS.10.0). Fadama sites from Garmin Map Source 6.12 for Nigeria helped in the classification operation. Also Excel embedded Intensity Analysis codes was used in determining the changes in Fadama ecosystem that affects food security, environmental sustainability and poverty reduction in the area. The study shows that the rate of landuse/landcover in the faster and is telling on Fadama land; Fadama is undergoing some pressure from other land uses. Although building around the Fadama is minima, its vegetation cover have been severely degraded,Temparature rise is occuring in Fadama and the soil moisture which makes Fadama a possible adaptation to climate change and variablity is decreasing. The study also provided the weak positive correaltion between rainfall and soil moiture in Fadama during dry season and proposed likely plans for Fadama conservation and protection based on peoples’s reponses and remote sensing resultss.The outcome of the research craved for the adaptive management and restoration of Fadama landscape and programmes by government, public,private and other stakeholders as response to climate change.